Doctrine of pre-established harmony:
Doctrine primarily associated with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) that there is no causation in the world but that each event arises when it does because it was pre-programmed to do so by God when the universe began.
The doctrine is often illustrated by the image of the two clocks -attributed to Arnold Geulincx (1625-1669) – which keep perfect time though neither influences the other, because their maker designed them to do so. The doctrine differs from occasionalism because God does all the causing in a single act at the start of the universe, not on each relevant occasion as it arises.
- Arnold Geulincx
- continental rationalists
- mean doctrine
- internal relations doctrine
- double effect doctrine
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